Cryptography is the practice and study of systems for secure communication in the face of adversarial behavior. Cryptography is the process of creating and analyzing protocols in general. It makes private messages unavailable to third parties or the general public. Modern encryption emphasizes data confidentiality, data integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation.
Mathematics, computer science, electrical engineering, communication science, and physics are all used in modern cryptography. Cryptography uses electronic commerce, chip-based payment cards, cryptocurrency, computer passwords, and military communications.
Fundamentals of Cryptography
Cryptography is strongly related to the sciences of cryptology and cryptanalysis. It includes microdots, merging words and pictures, and other ways for hiding data in storage or transmission. However, in today’s computer-centric culture, cryptography refers to converting plaintext to ciphertext, also known as encryption and decoding. Professionals who specialize in cryptography are known as cryptographers.
The four principles of modern cryptography are as follows:
Privacy: Anyone who wasn’t supposed to acquire the knowledge won’t be able to understand it.
Dignity: Information cannot be tampered with without being noticed either in storage or transit between the sender and the intended receiver.
Non-repudiation: The creator/sender of information cannot later deny their intentions in creating or transmitting the information.
Verification: The sender and receiver can confirm their identity and the origin and destination of the information.
Cryptographic algorithms, often known as cryptosystems, are used to encrypt and decrypt data in cryptosystems. It allows computer systems, devices, and applications to communicate securely.
In an encryption package, one algorithm is used for encryption, another for message authentication, and yet another for key exchange. It writes the code in software that runs on operating and networked computer systems, integrating it into protocols. The steps in this procedure are:
- It produces public and private keys for data encryption and decryption.
- It uses digital signatures and verification for message authentication.
- The handover of keys
Cryptographic techniques can be divided into three categories.
- Symmetric key cryptography is a type of cryptography that uses symmetric keys.
- Functions that have a hash value
- Public-key cryptography is a type of encryption that uses public keys.
Symmetric key: Both the sender and the recipient share a single key. The sender uses this key to encrypt the plaintext and send the ciphertext to the recipient. On the other hand, the receiver decrypts the message and retrieves the plain text using the same key.
Public-key: Cryptography has been the most revolutionary concept in the last 300–400 years. Two keys are utilized in public-key cryptography: public and private keys. The public key can be shared freely, but the private key must be kept confidential. The public key is used for encryption, whereas the private key is decryption.
Hash Functions: This algorithm does not have a key. The length hash value is confirmed using plain text hashing. It makes it impossible to reconstruct the plain text’s contents. Hash algorithms are also used by several operating systems to safeguard passwords.
By breaking into computers, attackers can get around cryptography. It deals with data encryption and decryption and exploits weaknesses such as the use of default keys. On the other hand, cryptography makes it more difficult for attackers to obtain access to encrypted messages and data.
NIST was concerned that quantum computing’s processing capacity would breach current cryptography encryption standards. In 2016, it issued a call for papers for new public-key cryptography standards in the mathematics and science community.
Unlike today’s computers, quantum computing uses quantum bits (qubits). It can represent both 0s and 1s, allowing it to perform two tasks simultaneously. While it seems improbable, that will build a large-scale quantum computer in the next decade.